Learning the names and symbols will help you to write chemical reaction equations faster. More important than these is the row and column arrangement which tells you about the electrons available for reactions, therefore their common charges in compounds. Elements in the same column react similarly. Column 1 elements all have 1 electron in their outer energy level and s orbital. Column 2 has 2 electrons in its highest s orbitals. Moving right on a row the elements become less metallic. Column 18 is the Noble gases, all have 8 electrons in their outer level except helium (only has 2). From row 1 to row 7 you are seeing energy levels added to the atom so it is effectively larger. Going down any column, the elements become more metallic. There are lots of periodic properties like size, ease of removing electrons that you can predict once you know why the table is arranged as it is.